Direct से Indirect बनाने के लिए महत्त्वपूर्ण नियम & PDF

Direct से Indirect बनाने के लिए महत्त्वपूर्ण नियम & PDF

    Direct Speech को  Indirect Speech में परिवर्तन करने के लिए महत्त्वपूर्ण नियम  -  Direct And Indirect Speech Rules in Hindi & Download PDF तथा  Narration or Basic Direct And Indirect Speech Rules In Hindi
    Read : Narration or Direct and Indirect in Hindi
    Direct से Indirect बनाने के लिए महत्त्वपूर्ण नियम
    Direct Speech को  Indirect Speech में परिवर्तन करने के लिए महत्त्वपूर्ण नियम
    Direct से Indirect बनाने के लिए महत्त्वपूर्ण नियम
    Direct - He said , "I am going to America now."
    Indirect - He said that he was going to America then.

    1. Reporting Verb & Reported Speech

    Direct Speech के दो भाग होते है - Reporting Verb तथा Reported Speech
    (i)  Reporting Verb
    Inverted commas के बाहर जो वाक्य  होता हैउसकी  Verb  Reporting verb कहलाती है 
    जैसे- He said, "I am going to America now." इस वाक्य में  said Reporting verb है।
    (ii)  Reported Speech
    Inverted commas के अंदर जो वाक्य रहता हैउसे Reported Speech कहते  है।
    जैसे- He said, "I am going to America now." इस वाक्य में "I am going to America now." Reported Speech है।

    2. Change of Pronouns

    Direct से  Indirect बनाते समय  Reported speech के  Pronouns को निम्नलिखित प्रकार से प्रवर्तित करते हैं;
    1. First Person को Reporting Verb के Subject के अनुसार  प्रवर्तित करते हैं।
    2. Second Person को Reporting Verb के Object के अनुसार प्रवर्तित करतेहैं।
    3. Third Person के  Reporting Verb में कोई भी बदलाव नहीं होता  है।
    Nominative Case
    Objective Case
    Ist Person
    Ist Person
    2nd Person
    3rd Person
    3rd Person
    3rd Person

    Examples :
    Direct  -  She says to Kiran, "I will teach you in the class."
    Indirect   - She tells Kiran that she will teach her in the class.".
    Direct  -  Rohan said to Seema, "I will give my text-book to you."
    Indirect   - Rohan told Seema that he would give his text-book to her.
    Direct  -  They said to me, "We have given our books  to you"
    Indirect   - They told me that they had given their books  to me.
    Direct  -  You said, “I have done my home work”.
    Indirect   - You said that you had done your home work.
    Direct  -  The father said to me, “You have not done your work well”.
    Indirect   - The  father  told me that I had not done my work well.
    Direct  -  I said to you, “He should not deposit money in the bank ”.
    Indirect   - I told you that he should not deposit money in the bank.

    3. Change of Tense

    1. Direct  से  Indirect बनाते  समय यदि  Reporting verb में Present tense या Future tense हो तो Reported speech के Tense में कोई भी बदलाव नहीं होता हैकेवल आवश्यकतानुसार  Pronoun को Change किया जाता है।
    2. यदि Reporting verb, Past tense में हो तो Reported speech के Tense को निम्नलिखित प्रकार से परिवर्तन होता है;
    3. यदि  Direct Speech Simple Present Tense में हो तो  Indirect Speech को  Simple Past Tense में परिवर्तित करते हैं
    4. यदि  Direct Speech Present Imperfect Tense में हो तो  Indirect Speech को  Past Imperfect Tense में परिवर्तित करते हैं
    5. यदि  Direct Speech Present Perfect Tense में हो तो  Indirect Speech को   Past Perfect Tense में परिवर्तित करते हैं
    6. यदि  Direct Speech Present Perfect Continuous Tense में हो तो  Indirect Speech को  Past Perfect Continuous Tense में परिवर्तित करते हैं
    7. यदि  Direct Speech Simple Past Tense में हो तो  Indirect Speech को  Past PerfectTense में परिवर्तित करते हैं
    8. यदि  Direct Speech Past Imperfect Tense में हो तो  Indirect Speech को  Past Perfect Continuous Tense में परिवर्तित करते हैं
    9. यदि  Direct Speech Past Perfect Tense में हो तो  Indirect Speech में कोई बदलाव नहीं होगा
    10. यदि  Direct Speech Past Perfect Continuous Tense में हो तो  Indirect Speech में कोई बदलाव नहीं होगा
    Direct Speech
    Indirect Speech
    Simple Present
    Simple Past
    Present Indefinite
    Past Indefinite
    Present Continuous
    Past Continuous
    Present Perfect
    Past Perfect
    Present Perfect Continuous
    Past Perfect Continuous
    Past Indefinite
    Past Perfect
    Past Continuous
    Past Perfect Continuous
    Past Perfect
    No change of Tense
    Past Perfect Continuous
    No change of Tense

    Direct - Rohan said to his father, "I love you."
    Indirect -  Rohan told his father that he loved him
    Direct - Nyla said to Archana, "I am reading your book."
    Indirect - Nyla told Archana that she was reading his book.
    Direct - Meena says, "I am not well"
    Indirect  - Meena tells that she is not well.
    Direct  - She will say to her husband, "Mohan did not treat his friend fairly."
    Indirect  - She will tell her husband that Mohan did not treat his friend fairly.
    Direct  - She Said, "I know your friend very well.”
    Indirect  - She said that she knew his friend very well..
    Direct  - Mohit said to Ram, "You have been writing  since morning."
    Indirect - Mohit told Ram that he had been writing  cricket since morning.
    Direct  - Meera said to Kamal, "You have called me yesterday."
    Indirect   - Shalini told Rajeev that he had called her the previous day.
    Direct  - The Manager said to me, "You will get your salary tomorrow."
    Indirect  - The Manager told me that I would get my salary  the next day.

    4. Change of Modals /Helping Verbs

    1 Direct  से  Indirect बनाते  समय यदि Reporting verb, Past tense में हो तो Reported speech के  Modals /Helping Verbs को निम्नलिखित प्रकार से प्रवर्तित करते है।       
    2. यदि  Direct Speech में Shall दिया हो तो  Indirect Speech में उसे Should में परिवर्तित करते हैं
    3. यदि  Direct Speech में Will दिया हो तो  Indirect Speech में उसे Would में परिवर्तित करते हैं
    4. यदि  Direct Speech में Can दिया हो तो  Indirect Speech में उसे Could में परिवर्तित करते हैं
    5. यदि  Direct Speech में May दिया हो तो  Indirect Speech में उसे Might में परिवर्तित करते हैं
    6. यदि  Direct Speech में Am / Is / Are दिया हो तो  Indirect Speech में उसे Was / Were में परिवर्तित करते हैं
    7. यदि  Direct Speech में Have / Has दिया हो तो  Indirect Speech में उसे Had में परिवर्तित करते हैं
    8.  यदि  Direct Speech में Had to + V1   दिया हो तो  Indirect Speech में उसे Had had to + V1 में परिवर्तित करते हैं
    9. यदि  Direct Speech  में Could , Should, Would, Might  दिया हो तो  Indirect Speech में कोई बदलाव नहीं होगा     
    Direct Speech
    Indirect Speech
    No Change
    No Change
    No Change
    No Change

    Direct  - He said to me, "You can go"
    Indirect  - He told me that I could go.
    Direct  - They said to us, "We can repair Cars"
    Indirect  - They told us that they could repair Cars.
    Direct  - He said to us, "I will operate  a Machine"
    Indirect  - He told us that he would operate a Machine.
    Direct  - They said to him, "She shall tell about  the  hostel life"
    Indirect  - They told him that she should tell about  the  hostel life 
    Direct  - He said to me , "I must go college"
    Indirect  - He told me that He must go college.

    5. Change in Time : 

    अगर Direct Speech के वाक्यों में समय दिया हो तो इस दिए गए टाइम को Inirect Speech में परिवर्तित करने के लिए निम्नलिखित टेबल के अनुसार परिवर्तन होगा
    Direct Speech -  Indirect Speech
    Ago  -  Before
    Today  - That day
    Tomorrow   - The next day
    Tonight  - That night
    Yesterday -  The previous day
    Last night   - The previous night
    Last week   -  The previous week
    Next week   -  The following week
    Now    -  Then
    The day before yesterday  -  The day before the previous day
    The last fortnight  - The previous fortnight.
    These  - Those
    This -That
    Thus   -  So
    Hence  - Thence
    Here  -  There
    Hither   - Thither
    Direct  - He said, " I am buying a car today"
    Indirect - He said that he was buy a car that day.
    Direct  - She said, " I need your help in the examination now"
    Indirect - She said that she needed my help in the examination then.

    6. Universal truth or a habitual fact (सार्वभौमिक सत्य /तथ्य अथवा आदत )

    यदि Direct Speech  में सार्वभौमिक सत्य / तथ्य या आदत  दिया हो , तो Inirect Speech बनाते समय इस तरह के वाक्य अपरिवर्तित रहते है।
    Direct - Nyla said, "Honesty is the best policy."
    Indirect - Nyla said that Honesty is the best policy.
    Direct - The teacher said to students, "The sun rises in the East."
    Indirect - The teacher told students that the sun rises in the East.".
    Direct - He said, “Two and two make four”.
    Indirect - He  said that Two and two make four.

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